This documented article is a Summary of a year governance by the “democratically” elected President Mohammed Morsi. Written by Professor dr A. Ph. MAKAR, MD, Ph.D. Gynaecologic Oncology – Email: Ammakeg@gmail.com – This Article is Published on 5 Parts, including documentations.
I have been driven to write this document by what I experienced as one sided media presentation in the western world. This analysis is therefore aimed to give the non Arabic speaking reader a balanced and documented point of view. It includes a lot of information that was not presented in own media either willingly or unwillingly.
This work is not for commercial use. The efforts of this report is a kind of thankfulness for my brave Egyptian people and my beloved great country, mother of the world as we use to say. This report would not have been possible without the keen and brave work done by journalists and media personnel despite risking their lives.
Mohammed Morsi taking the presidential oath:” I promise to respect the
constitution and the law…”
I. The presidential battle
In June 2012, Mohammed Morsi stood in El-Tahrir Square as Egypt’s first democratically elected president. In his emotional speech, Morsi then emphasized the need for further democratic developments, hence speaking of ‘respect for the constitution and law’; ‘the people are the source of power’, and ‘if I, Morsi will become a dictator, then you should rebel against me’.
His inauguration came as he had won the second round of the presidential elections by just 1.5%, leaving his rival General Ahmad Shafiq behind. Having served the Mubarak regime, Shafiq had been depicted as ‘feloul’, a part of the old regime, by the Muslim Brotherhood.
Despite the fact that lawyers of the Muslim Brotherhood failed to demonstrate any real evidence of corruption against him, Shafiq was still placed under heavy fire by the Islamic media. Moreover, in the run off to the elections, Morsi enjoyed massive support from many of the mosques’ preachers as the popular banner ‘Vote for Islam. Morsi is Islam’ filled the Egyptian streets.
Also, the Muslim Brotherhood’s slogan “Islam is the solution” was decisive for a great share of the Muslim voters, especially the lower educated among them. In addition, the Islamic media proclaimed that Morsi’s election would form a first step towards the liberation of Jerusalem from the Jewish occupiers.
It has also been noted that the Muslim Brotherhood ‘rewarded’ some of its voters at the polling stations, offering them a bag of rice, a bottle of oil or a bag of sugar in return for a vote.
As other pro-democratic parties lacked, many of the moderate Muslims and Christians were left behind with Shafiq, as the only alternative to the Muslim Brotherhood’s Islamist rule.
Yet, Shafiq’s controversial ties to the former regime, offered opportunities for Morsi too. Thus, in order to attract his share of the progressive, ‘revolutionary’ voters, Morsi vowed to fulfill some far-reaching promises (infra). So, he promised to appoint three vice-presidents, among them one woman and one Christian.
During the presidential elections, many Christians rural areas of upper Egypt were threatened by members of Jama-Islamia and by supporters of Muslim Brotherhood and were not allowed to leave to vote for the presidential elections. Many have made
statements in police stations against that oppression, but that period was another chaos and totally controlled by Islamist.
The committee who announced the presidential elections results did not deny that there were many statements about Christians who were not allowed to participate in the voting, but the committee did not get any firm investigations from the concerned authorities and “case was closed “.
The period prior to the announcement of the election results proceeded rather mysterious. The Islamist threatened by bloodshed if General Shafiek would win the election. The U.S. showed openly their support for the Muslim brother candidate. In addition, counterfeit ballots in favor of Morsi were shown on media.
Falsification allegedly took place at the Egyptian National Printing and the operation was claimed to be harmonized by Khairat El Shater, a leading figure in the Muslim brotherhood. The number of forged ballots was estimated at 800,000. There are many court cases raised after the announcement of the presidential elections based on that forged 800,000 votes and the case still in the court, and Law & Justice will judge whether the elections were forged or not. Mohammed Morsi was elected as president with just 1.5% more votes than his rival General Shafiq.
II. List of promises of Mohammed Morsi prior to the presidential elections (literal translation)
1. To appoint a new constitution committee (assembly) that will represent everybody within the Egyptian society including different geographical regions, women, Copts, juridical experts … etc. It is noteworthy that the Islamist powers refused to form a constitution assembly that included representatives from all layers of the Egyptian society.
They also rejected the idea to form a constitution prior to having both parliamentary and presidential elections. Forming
the foundation of a state; a balanced and fair constitution should be put in place to contribute to a more stable and peaceful society, claimed the revolutionaries together with secular powers.
Constitution first will also result in a parliament and a president with clear assignments, tasks and duties. All attempts to realize constitution first were repeatedly aborted by the Islamic powers. Thus Egypt had to have the parliamentary elections first that
lead to an Islamic parliament. This parliament on his turn selected a constitutional committee (assembly) drafted with radical Muslim dominance in 87% of its members.
Women and Christians were represented only in 3% of the members. There was also no geographical representation. In addition, top lawyers / judges were kept outside. It was clear, this constitution was not meant to result in a civil state. Constitutional items within the committee (assembly) had to be approved by only 57% majority. The constitution committee (assembly) with its way of representation working, was therefore a thorn in the eyes of the revolutionaries and civil powers. Therefore, Morsi made pre-election promises to reform the constitutional committee once he will be the president.
2. Egypt will never have a constitution that only represent a fraction of the population.
3. No referendum concerning the constitution will take place before I (Morsi) notice that there is global acceptance. This is a fixed thing (no doubt) , Morsi promised.
4. If I, (Morsi) will violate (not respect), the law and the constitution then the people must revolt against me.
5. There should be no constitutional declaration without a referendum. Morsi used this argument and canceled a constitutional declaration put by the army board shortly before the presidential election.
6. I, (Morsi), give the necessary appreciation to the President and all members of the Supreme Court who met their duties correctly. I will keep this institution (the legal system) strong, independent, spotless and efficient.
7. Legislative and executive powers must be separated. Interference in the working the legal system is not acceptable.
8. The (Egyptian) legal system is a matter of pride for everyone. We will never forget the role that the judge club and its president Counsel Ahmad El Zend have played against the falsification of the election in 2005 (under the Mubarak regime). These judges have brought balance and justice. They are the scale of the country. I, (Morsi), will not permit offense against them.
9. Christians are equal citizens, sectarian violence was a game of the Mubarak regime.
Link to the video that includes a collection of Mohammed Morsi’s promises prior to his presidential elections. He talked about reconciliation, national unity, balanced constituent assembly (committee), constitution for everyone, no referendum without national agreement, respect for the legal system, respect and appreciation for the Supreme Court…This point have been translated in the above-mentioned paragraphs.
Video Morsi’s Promises prior to presidential elections
III. After the elections: Mohammed Morsi violated his oath and election promises. Morsi committed even a judicial coup
1. In November 2012, only five months after his inauguration, Morsi committed a judicial coup by issuing a presidential decree that gave him exceptional legislative and executive powers. This powers were used to immunize the formation of a new constitution that was then dominated by Islamist powers.
2. In addition Morsi appointed a new Prosecutor-General, Talat Abdallah, a competence reserved to Egypt’s Supreme Court. Abdallah would later prosecute prominent members of the opposition, as Amr Moussa, Hamdeen Sabahi and Mohamed ElBaradei.
3. Violation of the legal system. For the first time in the history of Egypt, the Supreme Court was surrounded and blocked for several days by supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood in order to prevent judges from performing their tasks. The judges were even threatened with death.
Violence against judges was also moral one. The members of the Supreme Court and its President Ahmad El Zend were described by Morsi, the Brotherhood and Islamic media as traitors and as ‘feloul’, or part of the Mubarak regime. Safwat Hegazi the one who was appointed by Morsi as a member in the Egyptian National Human Rights Organization, called upon bringing the judges in a bloc of cement (dead) to Morsi.
4. Morsi withdrew his promise regarding the appointment of a Christian and female vice-president . A vice-president can replace the president in certain situations such as during a visit abroad or during illness. This is in contradiction with Sharia according to the brotherhood as “a non-Muslim may not take any mandate to a Muslim”. Also, no female vice president is permitted because the prophet said “cursed the people led by a woman” and “women lack reason and faith”, claimed the Salafists and the brotherhood. Morsi did instead a cosmetic operation by indicating a Christian and a woman as consultants.
5. Hijacking of the country to a religious state by a settling a radical constitution. The unilateral constitutional committee( assembly) was >87% radical members were kept unchanged. This resulted in a constitutional proposal that belonged in best case to the Middle Ages. This constitution was widely criticized by human rights organizations including Amnesty International, international lawyers, and by the UN. The salafist Yasser El Borhami, member of the Constitutional Committee (assembly), welcomed the Islamic constitution. He praised in a recorded video ” there have never been so many restrictions on freedom of religion and freedom of expression, such as in the current constitution. “We succeeded in cheating and manipulating Christians and liberals by using certain expressions within Islamic-law”.‘ Establishment of vice squad (morality police ) has now become a reality,”Borhami added.
The supervisory and protecting power of the Supreme Court regarding low formulation has been abolished in the new constitution and replaced by an advisory role. Islamic leaders got instead get the power to supervise, interpret ate and modulate laws (board of the great Ulama of Azhar) !!!.
6. Morsi hold a referendum regarding this one sided constitution despite mass protest. This has been again another violation to his promise (prior to elections) not to hold a referendum without broad acceptance. As usual, the Most of the illiterate voters who do not even know what a constitution would mean voted (finger printed) with YES after they were bribed with the famous Muslim brother package (bag with a kilo of rice, a bottle of oil and a pound of sugar) at the entrance of polling offices. Moreover,> 60% of the judges refused to supervise the referendum as a sign of protest to the continuous violation of the juridical system by Morsi and his followers. Morsi had therefore to perform the referendum in different stages separated by weeks interval.
This has also been a violation to the electoral law. In addition, the supervising judges, many with Muslim brother’s sympathy were not averse to influence the voters within the polling stations. Many video records showed how some of these judges were even indicating “YES” sign on election ballots of different voters.
7. Bloodshed and extreme violence was performed against the peaceful ant-Morsi demonstrators in many occasions. The peaceful demonstration surrounding the presidential palace “Itehadia” following the illegal constitutional declaration was ended by violence and bloodshed. Violence against demonstrators used to start first by Morsi supporters and gangs. Different incidents of torturing of peaceful demonstrators have been reported. Itehadia demonstrations ended with 68 fatalities. In successive waves of protest in Port Said, Suez, Ismailia … more than hundred fatalities were also committed by Morsi’s security.
Morsi announced even the curfew and state of emergency without any western criticism. Morsi regime murdered journalists, young activists after abuse. Bodies of different activists were found on the streets showing signs of torture. The head doctor of forensic service has resigned as a protest to the pressure put upon him to indicate car accident as cause of death instead of torturing. No condemnation was spoken by the west.
On the contrary, Morsi was rewarded by Obama administration that accelerated the delivery of F16 fighter jets. In addition president of the European Union Herman van Rompuy stood beside Morsi in Cairo to announce a billion Euros aid to the regime of Morsi.
8. Freedom of opinion and freedom of press. Sixteen journalists were prosecuted and even accused of blasphemy within only the first five months of Morsi’s presidency. The Arab Information Network for Human Rights has stated (19/01/13) that the number of lawsuits against journalists accused of insulting the president, by Morsi’s fifth month of presidency has been four times higher than during 30 years era of Mubarak. The supreme committee of journalists who fought for years for freedom of expression under Mubarak was dissolved and replaced by Muslim Brotherhood and Salafist that have nothing to do with journalism. Death threats were spoken against several journalists and TV presenters including many who have fought against the regime Mubarak without being threatened .
Freedom House Institute downgraded freedom of expression in Egypt from partially free to non-free zone.
9. Violence against women increased. Rape and sexual assault against female protesters was approved by the Muslim brother’s President of the Senate (Shura board) and several Muslim clerics.
This is beside the fact that Muslim brothers actively support female circumcision. Circumcision is called in Egypt ‘cleaning procedure”. Dr Abu El Fetouh the Muslim brother and former presidential candidate described circumcision as a correction for a female “congenital anomaly”.
10. Verbal and physical persecution of Christians took a steady rising curve . New forms of persecution took place such as imprisonment for blasphemy or insulting Morsi. More than four incidents of collective deportations of mass Christians took place. It went so far that the Coptic Cathedral was attacked with bombs while the funeral of some Christian victims of sectarian violence few days earlier was taking place.
Hate messages against non-Muslims have been hold almost 24/24 hours on the Islamic media, including those runt under the auspices of the Egyptian public broadcaster. The supreme leader mohammed Badie) repeated in 2012 the earlier statements of Morsi “Jews are sons of pigs and monkeys, leeches, source of corruption. They only understand the language of violence.” He called for the establishment of the Islamic caliphate and liberation of Palestine. Christians were in different situations threatened by bloodbath/shed.
These threatening were spoken out by many Muslim brother’s leaders including Mohammed El Beltagi, Safwat Hegazi, Khaled Badr … and the leader of Jama Islamia, the militant Assem Abdel Maged. Morsi never took any measure to stop this hateful messages. Morsi was invited in many occasions to visit a Coptic institute. He never did because visiting a church causes “impurity”.
11. Hatred and violence against Shiites. Morsi hold a meeting in Cairo stadium with majority of salafi leaders under the title “support jihad in Syria”. Morsi described Shiites during this meeting as people with aberrant “violated” belief. This is a hidden term that is equal to infidel “kafir” . As a “kafir” deserves death, many Shiites were murdered and maimed 3 days later in Shiite village in Giza.
12. Extinction of human rights organizations:
The board of National Human Rights Organization was disbanded. Great Egyptian names, known for their struggle for human rights, were scrapped including the layer Hafez Abu Seada. Morsi appointed instead many Muslim brothers/Salafis who reject even the basis of human rights as defined by the UN and consider it as anti-Islamic.
One of those appointed by Morsi, was the Muslim brother Safwat Hegazi,who is known with repeated hostile statements against Christians, Jews and women. Hossam El Gheriani was appointed as chairman. El Gheriani was also the chairman of the constitution committee (assembly) that delivered a constitution standing miles far from human rights. As icing on the cake Morsi appointed an ex-terrorist who was convicted because of mass murder as a member of the National Human Rights Organization.
– Forced Islamization (muslim-brotherization) of the country. Muslim Brothers were massively appointed as board presidents of national newspapers, state television, governors, presidents of provincial departments of Ministry of Education through out Egypt… All vital ministerial positions were donated to Muslim brothers ministers including the Ministry of Education. Pupils have to be Islamized from kindergarten.
-Actresses were called to be prostitutes and kept exposed to verbal and moral violations. Earlier records dating from 2010 showed how Morsi condemned dancing and consider it adulatory. In May 2013 ballet dance was banned at the Opera by the Muslim brother minister of culture.
-Several incidents involving aggression against non-headscarf-wearing students even at primary schools. In many cases these under aged students were punished by own teacher who cut their hair within the class room . Some students were prevented from doing their examinations or get their rewards for not carrying a headscarf.
-Foundation for Islamic militias: the Attorney General (appointed by Morsi) announced a decree on 10/03/13 that permits and grantee right to every citizen to arrest those who looks suspect to threaten the security.
-Launch of Islamic militia was often suggested by the Muslim Brotherhood and was even practiced by the Jama Islamia in Assiut (upper Egypt).
-It came so far that Morsi appointed in June 2013 an ex militant of Jama Islamia as governor for province of Luxor. Jama Islamia committed in 1996 a massacre against 76 tourists in Luxor after maiming their bodies. The minister of tourisms resigned at protest.
– Morsi refused any reconciliation with the opposition. He even did not take any consideration to demands or requests of the growing mass of popular uprising against his dictatorial policy. He refused to postpone the referendum of the constitution and refused to permit community dialogue about the different controversial articles with flagrant violation of human rights. Morsi refused to
form a coalition government. His “bearded” government was exclusively based on Muslim brothers and some ministers of the old Mubarak regime “feloul”.
Ministers were selected on the basis of their ideology, and not on the basis of competence.
– Morsi was not the president for all Egyptians as stated in the oath. As a real Muslim brother, Morsi proved loyalty to the brotherhood organization (own people). Being the president of Egypt did not change hair in his obedience to the supreme leader of the brotherhood Mohammed Badie.
a- Foreign delegations even military delegations visited more often the counselor of the Muslim brother (Badie) and the strongman Khyrat Elshater than Morsi himself. Neither Badie nor El Shater had an official post that permit them to discuss vital topics regarding economy or security of Egypt with foreign delegations.
b- A lot of vital decisions were often spoken out by the supreme office of the brotherhood before being announced by the spokesman of the president himself .
c- During the mass protests in November 2012 – January 2013, General El Sisi has invited all parties to a work dinner at the army club, without any interference of the army. El Sisi regarded the invitation as an attempt to calm down the minds after the mass protest that left high number of fatalities and damage . Morsi firstly accepted the invitation before rejecting it day later after getting command from the office of the supreme leader of brotherhood.
d- The expression of the ex-supreme leader Mahdy Akef ,”Egypt can go to hell” (Toz fi Masr).. as caliphate is the goal of the brotherhood “ kept repeated in many occasions without condemnation.
e- Sales of Egyptian interests to Qatar. Thus the most strategic and most valuable territories around the Suez Canal were prepared to be sold to Qatar. Already number of strategic settings and banks had been sold to the Qatari ruler. The Muslim Brotherhood had to pay back the price for the generous sponsorship of the Qatari ruler.
In addition to financial support, the Muslim brothers profited from rather one-sided media reports from the influential Aljazeera broadcasting. Number of head figures in Aljazeera are linked to Muslim brothers like Ahmad Mansour, the presenter of most famous political program’s and Wadah Khanfarthe ex chief of Aljazeera . This is In addition to the influential role of the Imam El Karadawi “God the Father” of the Muslim brothers through his famous religious “political” program on Aljazeera named “Sharia and life”. El Karadawy has been settling in Qatar for more the 3 decennia’s.
He harmonized the so called “Arab spring” in front and behind the scenes. El karadawy has spoken number of “murder fatwa’s” against number of Arab leaders. He is also known with his famous fatwa to facilitate NATO military intervention in Libya “ if the profit was still alive he would have given a hand to the NATO”. He also calls upon for military intervention in Syria. However he strongly rejected and
condemned the French intervention in Mali. He is also known with his close relationship to Taliban regime.
It is worth mentioning that five of “Aljazeera-direct” presenters resigned recently as a protest against the one-sided way of reporting imposed upon them by the directory during and after the mass protest of 300613 that has overthrown Mohammad Morsi.
f- Disappearance of the vital and strategic resources for daily life such as gasoline. Waiting in a queue to fuel a car used to consume more than three hours if gasoline is available.
Strategic resources were smuggled through thousands of illegal underground tunnels from Sinai to Gaza. Afterfall of Morsi, the media showed how huge fuel reserves were built close to Gaza to collect and smuggle the gasoline. Electricity supply used to be interrupted daily and for many hours in order to permit supporting electricity stream of Gaza. The prime minister of Morsi even advised the Egyptians to wear cotton underwear’s in order to save electricity by stopping their air-conditions during the hot Egyptian summer. Muslim brotherhood organization in Gaza “Hamas” was put ahead upon Egypt on the priorities of Morsi.